The Paris St-Germain forward could not add to his 61 international goals in a frustrating display in front of a sparse crowd.
Liverpool's Roberto Firmino put Brazil ahead with a lovely chip from Gabriel Jesus' clever pass.
And after Sadio Mane had been fouled, Bristol City striker Famara Diedhiou equalized from the penalty spot.
Neymar twice went close late on from free-kicks but landed one on the roof of the net and saw a second one well saved by Alfred Gomis.
Senegal went closest to a winner as Liverpool's Mane who played the full 90 minutes at the National Stadium hit the post from the edge of the area.
Brazil's next match is a friendly with Nigeria, also in Singapore, on Sunday.
Watch highlight below: